Name: Fons Trompenaars
Born: 1952 in the Netherlands
- Seven Dimensions of Culture
- Universalism vs. Particularism
- Individualism vs. Communitarianism
- Specific vs. Diffuse
- Affective vs. Neutral
- Achievement vs. Ascription
- Sequential vs. Synchronic
- Internal vs. External Control
Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business (1993). New York: McGraw-Hill
The Seven Cultures of Capitalism (1993). London: Piatkus Books
Building Cross-Cultural Competence: How to Create Wealth from Conflicting Values (2000). London: Yale University Press
Managing People across Cultures (2004). Oxford: Capstone
Fons Trompenaars studied Economics at the Free University of Amsterdam and completed his Ph.D. at Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. He grew up in a multicultural family of French and Dutch and later worked for Shell in nine different countries.
Trompenaars was a student of Geert Hofstede who had a strong influence on his research in the intercultural field. After working closely with Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions, Trompenaars decided to expand them into seven slightly different dimensions of opposing concepts adding some elements of cultural difference which were not in the original model.
Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner, also heavily involved in the field of international business research and intercultural theory, have joined together to conduct further research in the field.
Trompenaars’ Seven Dimensions of Culture is a model often referred to indirectly in online cultural tools and cross-cultural training programmes such as Communicating Effectively across Cultures to help increase understanding of cultural relativity and cultural difference.